Transcription Tips

We have compiled transcription tips to assist you with your recording.  This enables us to produce the best quality transcription for you.  The quality of the the audio received determines the quality of the transcription.

If you have not yet conducted your recordings, please bear these transcription tips in mind.  If you have already conducted your recordings, these transcription tips may assist you to understand why your transcription is the way it is.

Please note: bad audio recordings cannot be fixed after recording.  Sound quality cannot be enhanced and interference cannot be deleted.

Audio Quality

It is preferential to record using a bitrate of at least 64kbps.  The higher the bit rate, the clearer the audio.  Higher bit rates will produce larger audio files but the quality of the audio is not compromised.

Audio Format

We can accept most formats of audio.  When it comes to uploading your audio files, the size will make a difference in the upload speed.

We are finding more and more that we are receiving audio files from cell phones, which use a different format to normal recording devices.  Although we do accept these audio files, and to-date have not had an issue finding a programme to convert them to a format we can use in our transcription programme, we may charge for the time required to find a programme to convert the file to .wav or .mp3.


  • Ensure that you record in a quiet environment to avoid unnecessary background noise.
  • Ensure that all speakers are close to the recorder/microphone so that they can be clearly heard on the audio.
  • Start recording a few seconds before speaking begins to ensure the beginning is not cut off.
  • Switch off cell phones to avoid interruptions and to avoid cell phone reception interference.

Noise Interference/Disturbances

There are many noise interferences and disturbances you need to be aware of when recording.  Although these sounds normally aren’t very loud, the recorder/microphone may amplify these sounds, overpowering the speaker’s voice.  Here are but a few examples:

Papers rustling

Ensure that those around the recorder/microphone are not looking through papers while someone is speaking.  Ask the person with the papers to move away from the recorder/microphone while paging through documents, or move the recorder/microphone closer to the speaker to ensure the speaker is clearly heard.  Remember to move it back when the person with the documents has stopped.

Cups and saucers

This is a common problem just after a tea break/lunch when those close to the recorder/microphone stir their tea or coffee or put their cups on saucers.  Ensure cups are kept as far from the recorder/microphone as possible and tea or coffee is stirred prior to commencing with the recording.

Another solution would be to use cups without saucers – a soft placemat, for instance, could be used instead to eliminate the noise of the cups on saucers.

Coughing/sneezing/throat clearing

Although these can very often be sudden, ask those present to turn completely away from the recorder/microphone if they feel the need to cough, sneeze, or clear their throat.  Although they may be doing this as quietly as possible, if they are close to the recorder/microphone these can be amplified and overpower the speaker’s voice.

Where the person has been unable to turn away in time, ask the speaker to repeat what he/she said to ensure it is captured clearly on the recording.

Traffic noise

If the area you are in is near a particularly busy road, close all windows and place the recorder/microphone as far away from the windows as possible to ensure that the traffic noise is not picked up too loudly on your recording.  Be aware of vehicles hooting, trucks reversing (beep-beep), and so forth, and ask the speaker to repeat what he/she has said (hooting) or stop talking until all is quiet again (trucks reversing).

Cell phone reception interference

This occurs when a cell phone is placed close to the recorder/microphone.  While you are recording, all will seem normal but, on the recording, you will only hear interference as the interference overpowers the speaker’s voice.  Ensure all cell phones are switched off (not on silent as the reception interference can still occur) or that they are placed far away from the recorder/microphone.


If you are in a room with a particularly noisy air-conditioner, try to keep the air-conditioner fan as low as possible to soften the noise, and ensure the speakers talk louder than normal and are closer to the recorder/microphone.  Where possible, sit at the end of the room furthest away from the air-conditioner.


Whether inside the building or outside the building, construction noise is one of the most difficult to eliminate.  Where possible, request a change of venue.  If this is not possible, ensure all windows (for outside construction) or doors (for inside construction) are kept closed at all times and sit as far away from these windows or doors as possible.  Ensure the speakers talk louder than normal and are closer to the recorder/microphone so that their voices are heard above the construction noise.

Banging/tapping on tables

Ask those present not to bang or tap anything on the table, near the recorder/microphone.  It may be soft on their side but the recorder/microphone may amplify the sound to the point where it overpowers the speaker’s voice.  In the case of an accidental bang or tap on the table, ask the speaker to repeat what he/she has just said.

Pen clicking

Ask those present not to constantly click their pens.  Again, this sound can be amplified and may overpower the speaker’s voice.

Venue noise

Venue noise occurs when you conduct your recording in a place like a coffee shop, company cafeteria, outside area and the likes.  Try and avoid these areas at all times.  You have no control over the environment and it can make clear recording very difficult.

If you have no choice but to conduct your recording in an open area, ensure that all speakers are talking directly into the recorder – don’t place the recorder on the table – and that they speak louder than normal to ensure their voices are heard above the din associated with these areas.

Noises in general

If possible, take a couple of minutes in the venue before anyone arrives, close your eyes, and listen.  Evaluate all the sounds you pick up during this time and try and eliminate those that can be removed.

If outside the room seems to be particularly noisy, with people talking loudly as they pass, ask if they can keep the noise levels down for the duration of the recording.

Test all the chairs that will be used.  If you find a particularly noisy chair, see if it can be changed.  If not, ask the person sitting in that chair to refrain from too much movement.

Where nothing can be done about the noise levels, ask the speakers to talk louder than normal, and ensure those voice levels are kept up throughout the entire recording session.

If there are sudden noises or interruptions, ask the speaker to repeat what he/she has just said, before continuing.  Rather have the same thing twice than not at all.


The most critical part of your recording is the way the speakers talk during the recording.  If too much of what a speaker is saying is not heard, we can lose the entire context of what is being said.  This causes problems not only for that particular section but also throughout the rest of the audio as we may miss something important.

Here are a few things you can ask them to do to ensure you get the best quality transcription:

Speak clearly

Ask the speaker to speak clearly and enunciate.  Avoid mumbling.

Speak slowly

Ask the speaker to speak slowly.  Speakers who speak quickly often have their words running into each other, which makes it difficult to hear precisely what is being said.  Another positive to speaking slowly is that the speaker is less likely to stutter, stammer, or hesitate.  The speaker will have a bit more time to think while talking and the flow of the talking will be smoother.

Voice volume

Ask all speakers to maintain a good voice volume that can be picked up by the recorder/microphone.  If a speaker talks too quietly, they might not be heard clearly.  Wherever possible, place those with quieter voices closer to the recorder/microphone than those with stronger voices.

Heavy accents

Heavy accents cannot be avoided or changed.  If a speaker has a particularly heavy accent, ask them to speak clearly, slowly, and enunciate as best as possible.

Simultaneous talking

Ask those present to refrain from talking over each other.  Allow one speaker to finish talking before another speaker starts talking.  If the speaker must be interrupted for purposes of clarity, interrupt the speaker with a brief (preferably non-verbal) indication and wait for that speaker to stop talking before speaking.

Special Notes on Group Recordings

If you are conducting a recording with a group of people (4 or more speakers), please take note of the following:

Simultaneous talking

This is one of the biggest issues when conducting group recordings.  Advise speakers to allow each other to finish talking and wait their turn before speaking.


Wherever possible in large groups, ensure that each speaker has his/her own microphone.

If you are using a recorder, ensure that the person speaking has the recorder close to him/her.  In a large group, a recorder in the centre of the table doesn’t always work as those sitting further from the recorder might not be heard.  If preferred, use more than one recorder and place them around the table so that each smaller group can be heard clearly.

If only one microphone is used, ensure the speaker has the microphone when talking and hands it to the next speaker when he/she is done talking.  Advise speakers not to talk until they have the microphone in their hands.

In a case where microphones are not available for audience members (for instance, at a conference), during question and answer sessions ask the speaker to repeat the question he/she was asked before answering the question.  This way, both the question and answer are recorded clearly, and not just the answer.

Speaker identification

Ask the speakers to clearly identify themselves prior to talking.  Where voices are easily distinguishable by accents, dialects, gender, and so forth, this only needs to be done once.  In the case where voices may be fairly similar (for example, two or more speakers of the same gender with the same accent or dialect), this should be done each time they speak.  This allows for easy and accurate identification during the transcription process.  Alternatively, video record the session instead and ensure that all participants can be seen.  Video recordings can be converted to audio recordings for transcription and the video can be used as an identification method.

Identification of speakers does not need to be names if names are not to be used in the transcription. You can allocate them a code they will use each time they speak.  Have them introduce themselves using this code before beginning the session (ensure the introduction is recorded) and then have them use this code when they have something to say.  In the introduction, let them say a few brief things so that we can pick up their voices and style of talking at the beginning.


Female 1         Hi, I’m F1 and I’m here because…

Male 1             Hi, I’m M1 and I was asked to attend because…

Female 2         Hi, I’m F2 and I wanted to be here because…

Female 1         F1, I also wanted to say that…

Male 1             M1, I agree with that.

Female 1         F1, but don’t you think…

Female 2         F2, no, not at all.

Alternatively, have a note-taker take notes at the session and note each speaker and a few keywords they say while they’re speaking to allow for easy identification.

In group transcriptions, particularly long ones, it can be difficult to distinguish one voice from another.  The voice of one person can change from one instance to the next, depending on their excitement levels and emotions.  At one point in the audio, the speaker may sound like he/she has got a relatively deep voice but, at another point later, he/she may get excited and the pitch and tone of his/her voice may rise.  It makes comparison between the two very difficult.

Clear identification of speakers requires less voice comparison, thereby decreasing the cost of your transcription and improving the turnaround time.

Supplying Information

In all cases of transcription, the more information you can supply, the better quality transcription we can provide.  This information can include the list of attendees, agenda of the meeting, minutes of the meeting, programme for the conference, questionnaires used during interviews, information regarding the interviews, and so forth.  Information supplied will be kept confidential and used for reference purposes only.